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(David Grand & Chris Ranck)

The goal of BSP (and therapy in general) is to bring the client's system from

dysregulation toward or into regulation.

For therapy to be successful (long-term), the client's system needs to regain its

capacity for regulation (from dysregulation).

We have a triune brain (3 parts):

The brain stem (reptilian),

Limbic system (mammalian), and the

Neocortex (primates and humans).

"Neocortical" refers to the human brain.

"Subcortical" refers to the limbic system down to the mid brain.

The Neocortex (or prefrontal cortex) is located right behind your forehead.

It is also called (by Damir) the GRANULAR ISOCORTEX.

The granular isocortex has 6 layers (called lamina)

The 4th layer down is "granular" (because the brain cells there are more grainy and compact.

Thus the name, granular isocortex.)

The granular isocortex takes care of the executive functions of the brain

(thinking, planning, analysis, etc).

A higher order of thinking and analysis ( cognitive stuff) takes place in the granular isocortex.

(I'm saying it over and over to reinforce the name.)

Information enters the system from or through the granular ( 4th) layer, and will

either go up thru the above layers for higher analysis, or go down to the bottom

layers for lower analysis.

The granular isocortex is NOT primarily involved in system regulation.

However, just below the granular isocortex is the AGRANULAR

ISOCORTEX (located behind the V of your nose between your eyes)

The agranular isocortex has only 4 layers. (Agranular means no grainy material, or "without granulars")

It does not involve a higher order of thinking and analysis.

Instead the agranular isocortex involves itself more in regulation of the brain and body.

And finally, deeper in the brain is the LIMBIC SYSTEM.

This includes the hippocampus, the singulate gyrus, etc.

The limbic system also has its own cortex (who knew!!!) called


Importantly, the allocortex IS involved in system regulation.


For psychotherapy to be successful it must engage the parts of the brain involved in regulation (away from dysregulation).


The allocortex and the agranular isocortex are parts of the brain actively

involved in regulation of the limbic system and also of the brain stem (which means access to regulation of the body).


Psychotherapy is ONLY likely to be successful long term if it accesses the

allocortex and the agranular isocortex.

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